Pregnancy and Incontinence
Why does urinary incontinence occur in pregnancy?
The daily volume of urine and the frequency of urination increases during pregnancy. In the I and the II trimester the amount of urine passed during a single bladder voiding increases – in the III trimester the volume drops down, but the urge to visit the toilet is much more frequent. The capacity of the bladder pressed by the uterus gets gradually smaller, and the volume of the urine filling the ureters increases.
The type of incontinence experienced during pregnancy is mostly stress incontinence, which typically develops in the 3rd trimester when the uterus is at its biggest. Usually, the incontinence is minor with the woman only losing a few drops of urine. It is often difficult to notice if hygienic pads are changed routinely, however the problem can sometimes be more serious.
The growing baby expands the uterus walls, taking over all the available space in the abdomen. This causes the other organs to shift positions and, now compressed inside the abdomen, they must work under more difficult conditions. As the baby jostles and kicks more and more and hits the bladder, occasionally the kicks are so strong that the weakened sphincter muscles let go, causing urine loss. Additionally, the bladder under the pressure of the uterus has so little room to expand that the pregnant woman feels the urge to urinate even when the bladder is not full.
Due to changes in the mucous membrane of the genitourinary tract during pregnancy, a woman is more likely to suffer infections of both the urinary system and of the intimate parts. These infections may cause discomfort during urination and increase the frequency of urine loss.